Decolonising Open Educational Resources (OER): Why the focus on ‘open’ and ‘access’ is not enough for the EdTech revolution

Reading Time: 9 minutes

At EdTech Hub, we’ve been reflecting on how coloniality is embedded in the work we do: from the colonial roots of the international development sector, to colonial practices embedded in research methods, to “core-to-periphery” design and deployment of EdTech interventions. We’ve just begun this journey, but in trying to embody one of our EdTech Hub values of ‘fearless and humble learning,’ we wanted to think out loud with you. This is the second in long-form series exploring what it means to strive toward ‘Decolonising EdTech’. Thanks to Taskeen Adam and Moizza Binat Sarwar for their support and insights.

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Decolonising EdTech: A resource list for tackling coloniality and digital neocolonialism in EdTech

Reading Time: 7 minutes

At EdTech Hub, we’ve been reflecting on how coloniality is embedded in the work we do: from the colonial roots of the international development sector, to colonial practices embedded in research methods, to “core-to-periphery” design and deployment of EdTech interventions. We’ve just begun this journey, but in trying to embody one of our EdTech Hub values of ‘fearless and humble learning,’ we wanted to think out loud with you. This is the first of a three-part, long-form series exploring what it means to strive toward ‘Decolonising EdTech’.

Special thanks to our @GlobalEdTechHub twitter followers who responded to our crowd-sourcing call for resources on Decolonising EdTech.

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The Story of ‘Unlocking Data’

Reading Time: 3 minutes
Photo Credit: Image by ESSA

Imagine you are working in the Ugandan Ministry of Education and you want to understand how barriers to girls’ education at secondary level are changing. You can find a few academic articles that look relevant but sit behind a paywall, and a high-level report from a consulting firm, none of which answer the exact question you want to ask. You know the data that was used to write these articles and reports could provide crucial insights if analysed with your priorities in mind. However, tracking down the data is fruitless  —  the data was not deposited, catalogued, or indeed ethically cleared for future use.

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Using ‘building blocks’ to develop digital education platforms cheaper and faster

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Earlier this year, our team at EdTech Hub and partners at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation noticed a recurring pattern: we saw colleagues around the world — in government, the private sector, civil society — working to develop various digital platforms for learning. We also noticed that most of them tended to need similar platform components — and they either developed them from scratch or used off-the-shelf solutions that weren’t quite tailored to their needs. 

We found ourselves wondering … if we, as a global EdTech community, can understand which platform components or ‘building blocks’, are needed and how they can be used most effectively, we could reduce duplication, increase quality, and conserve resources — ultimately lowering the cost of digital education opportunities and giving access to more children. 

So, we set out to investigate existing and potential use cases for how open-source, modular ‘building blocks’ can be used to build digital platforms for education in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We wanted to test the following hypothesis:

build digital platforms for education
… but what are ‘building blocks’?

Building blocks can mean different things in different contexts. In our research we defined building blocks as open-source, modular, interoperable pieces of code or software that can be (re)used to build or tailor platforms. They are the middle ground between building bespoke platforms and using off-the-shelf platforms.

Examples of platforms that could leverage building blocks include content repositories, teacher professional development platforms, virtual learning environments, student information systems, and education management information systems.  Broadly, these platforms fall into two major categories: platforms for teaching and learning and platforms for education system management.

What did we do?

We conducted desktop research and semi-structured interviews with donors, ministry officials, and platform developers to gather a long list of platforms and tools that are used in sub-Saharan Africa. From this, we did a deep dive on three building block platforms (DHIS2 for education, OpenEMIS and Sunbird), and four countries (Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Kenya, and South Sudan).

Through our research, we were able to provide insights on the following questions: 

  1. How can education systems potentially benefit from building blocks?
  2. What are the pathways to successful uptake?
  3. When should you build from scratch, use off-the-shelf solutions, or use building blocks?
  4. What roles do key stakeholders play?
  5. How can stakeholders interact better?
  6. What are the risks of provision?
  7. Is there a need and demand?
  8. How can donors provide better support?
  9. What considerations need to be taken into account to determine a country’s readiness to use digital platform building blocks?
What did we find?

In addition to our insights on the above nine questions, some of our unique findings included the following:

  • While countries such as India have a thriving community both developing and using building blocks, this is not yet the case in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, ministries are more likely to build bespoke solutions from scratch (e.g., Kenya’s National Education Management Information System) or to use off-the-shelf solutions (e.g., MS Teams). This is either because they are unaware of existing building blocks or have concerns about the integrity of open-source platforms.
  • While there are no homegrown examples of building blocks in sub-Saharan Africa, building blocks that are developed by international partners are being used (e.g., OpenEMIS used in DRC, Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa and Zambia, and DHIS2 for Education used in Eswatini, Mozambique, The Gambia, Togo, Uganda, and Tanzania).
  • Factors that enable effective use of building blocks include:
  1.  Digital infrastructure maturity
  2.  Human capacity such as skilled developers and data analysts
  3. A supportive ecosystem 
  4. Sufficient funding
  5. Stakeholder and policy support
  • There is a need to ‘educate demand’ on the use of open-source platforms and building blocks for both donors and in-country decision-makers. There are a large number of bespoke platforms being developed by ministries with donor funding. Sharing information regarding the benefits of building blocks can reduce duplication and conserve resources.
  • There is a need to coordinate donor funding on platform development. There are a number of donors developing different platforms of a similar nature within a country.  This has resulted in fragmented data that can even produce conflicting findings. Donor projects and funding need to be coordinated such that they invest in building central and / or integrable platforms.

Photo credit: Nathan Dumlao

Advancing evidence-based decision making in LMICs: Focus of EdTech Hub’s work

Reading Time: 3 minutes

This blog post is a cross-post from EdTech Hub‘s blog https://edtechhub.org/2021/05/07/advancing-evidence-based-decision-making-in-lmics-focus-of-edtech-hubs-work/ (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0). The blog post was written by Sara Hennessy on the 7th May 2021.

This blog sets out the Hub’s aims and approaches to identifying appropriate and effective uses of EdTech that can potentially raise learning outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Research shows that EdTech offers immense potential, but sustainable and positive change at scale has largely proved elusive in practice – particularly for marginalised learners where we focus our work. 

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Using evidence to strengthen tech-supported teacher professional development in Madagascar

Reading Time: 6 minutes

Reposted from EdTech Hub. Original authors: CAITLIN MOSS COFLAN, SAALIM KOOMAR AND HASINIAVO RASOLOHERY. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0

High school students in Soavinandriana, Itasy region, Madagascar, attending an educational movie projection.
Photo credit: Hasiniavo Rasolohery, 2019

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Context

Madagascar faces high levels of learning poverty; 97 per cent of the country’s children at late primary age are not proficient in reading (World Bank, 2019, based on 2015 PASEC data). We know teachers are one of the most crucial influences on student learning; in 2019, just 15% of primary school Malagasy teachers were qualified. How can these teachers be supported effectively to improve student learning? And how can this support be provided at a distance, at scale, using technology in ways that can support populations with limited connectivity?  Despite reportedly high internet speeds, internet penetration is low, just 2.1% of Malagasy people can access the internet (Quartz article, Lijadu, 2019). 

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L’utilisation des preuves pour renforcer la formation pédagogique à travers les technologies à Madagascar

Reading Time: 7 minutes

Cross-posted from https://edtechhub.org. Original post APRIL 23, 2021 BY CAITLIN MOSS COFLAN, SAALIM KOOMAR AND HASINIAVO RASOLOHERY. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

Des lycéens de Soavinandriana, de la région Itasy, Madagascar, assistant à une séance de projection de vidéo éducative.
Crédit Photo: Hasiniavo Rasolohery, 2019

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Contexte

Madagascar fait face à un taux élevé de la pauvreté d’apprentissage; 97 pour cent des enfants en classe de primaire du pays ne sont pas capables de lire un texte en français adapté à leur âge (Banque mondiale 2019, sur données PASEC 2015). Nous savons que les enseignants ont une influence cruciale sur l’éducation des élèves; en 2019, seulement 15% des enseignants primaires Malagasy avaient la qualification nécessaire. Comment appuyer ces enseignants efficacement afin d’améliorer l’éducation des étudiants? Et comment cet appui pourrait être fourni à distance sur une grande échelle, en utilisant des technologies qui peuvent aider les communautés dont l’accès au réseau est faible? Malgré ladite éxistence de connexion à très haut débit , le faible taux de pénétration d’Internet montre que seuls 2.1% des Malagasy ont accès à Internet (Article Quartz, Lijadu, 2019).

Depuis la première incursion de EdTech Hub dans ces problèmes à travers un briefing du « Helpdesk » sur les initiatives de développement professionnel des enseignants dans les environnements à faible connectivité, nous avons travaillé avec le Ministère l’Éducation Nationale (MEN), L’Institut National de Formation Pédagogique (INFP), et la Banque Mondiale sur la première composante du Projet d’Appui à l’Education de Base pour étaler cet ensemble de défis. 16 000 enseignants de la première et deuxième année seront directement impliqués dans un pilotage de formation pédagogique (FP) dans le cadre de ce projet, afin d’améliorer les résultats des élèves en lecture et calcul. 

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Sierra Leone series: Plan International and the importance of community support for distance teacher professional development programmes

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Cross-posted from the EdTech Hub – Creative Commons Attribution 4.0

Photo credit: Plan International

Over the past few months, the EdTech Hub team has analysed and mapped the EdTech research landscape in Sierra Leone. In doing so, we have met a number of individuals and organisations that are exploring if and how technology can support the country’s education sector. 

In week four, we met with Arthur Saidu, Eusebio Rincon Casado and Maggie Shergill from Plan International. In Sierra Leone, Plan International has led the implementation of the Girls’ Access to Education (GATE) programme with funding from UK Aid through the Girls’ Education Challenge. In this interview, we spoke about their work to deliver a distance teacher professional development programme to women in remote areas.

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